Environmental policy and management to regulate multiple human activities require detailed understanding of how activities act individually and in combination to affect ecosystems and the range of nature’s contributions to people / ecosystem services they provide.

Progress has been made in characterising effects of many anthropogenic pressures on biodiversity, consequences for ecosystems and links to ecosystem services. Further work and integration is required and research must be extended to capture effects on multiple dimensions of biodiversity and society and determine how changes in one ecosystem affect others.

Land2Sea is an international project funded under a joint call of the Belmont Forum, Biodiversa and the EC (2019 – 2021). It aims to develop an integrated framework for assessing the consequences of human activities for water quality and biodiversity. It will capture combined impacts of terrestrial inputs and climate change on freshwater and marine systems and incorporate physical, ecological and socio-cultural dimensions aligned with the Conceptual Framework of the IPBES. The framework will facilitate management to improve water quality and will support the objectives of European and international biodiversity policy to halt or reverse species decline.

It will also contribute towards efforts to achieve SDG targets 6.3 (By 2030, improve water quality), SDG 6.6 (By 2020 restore aquatic ecosystems), 14.1 (By 2015, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution) and 14.2 (By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems).